APICA

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APICA
Molecular structure of APICA
APICA.svg
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names APICA, SDB-001, 2NE1
Substitutive name APICA
Systematic name N-(1-Adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.


Smoked
Dosage
Threshold < 0.5 mg
Light 0.5 - 1.5 mg
Common 1.5 - 2 mg
Strong 2 - 4 mg
Heavy 4 mg +
Duration
Total 30 - 60 minutes
Onset 0 - 20 seconds
Peak 10 - 30 minutes
Offset 5 - 10 minutes
After effects 15 - 35 minutes










DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.

APICA (also known as SDB-001, and 2NE1) is a novel synthetic cannabinoid that produces modified cannabis-like effects when administered. It has been shown to act as a potent agonist for the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors.[1]

The name "2NE1" appears to be a reference to the South Korean all-girl K-Pop group,[2] a naming convention shared by the closely related chemical AKB48. In 2011, the two chemicals were first identified in Japan as a mixture in a product sold under the name "Fragrance Powder".[3] APICA has since been available for sale as a grey-area research chemical through online vendors.

Synthetic cannabinoids are commonly smoked or vaporized to achieve a quick onset of effects and rapid offset. There is little information available about the use of APICA via other routes of administration, although as with other synthetic cannabinoids it could be expected to be orally active when dissolved in a lipid, which may significantly extend its duration. It is insoluble in water, but dissolves in ethanol and lipids.[citation needed]

Unlike cannabis, the chronic abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been associated with multiple deaths and more dangerous side effects and toxicity in general. Therefore, it is strongly discouraged to take this substance for extended periods of time or in excessive doses. Thorough independent research and harm reduction practices are strongly advised if choosing to use this substance.

Chemistry

APICA, or N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide, is a synthetic indole cannabinoid. Like many synthetic cannabinoids, it can be considered to be composed of four linked structures: core, bridge, head, and tail.[4] In APICA, the core indole group is substituted at R1 with a pentyl chain tail and at R3 with a carboxamide bridge linking to an adamantyl head.

APICA can be considered an analog of both AKB48, which features an indazole in place of APICA's indole group, and STS-135, in which the pentyl tail is further substituted with a terminal fluorine.

Pharmacology

APICA acts as a full agonist of the cannabinoid receptors, with similar potency at both CB1 and CB2. In vivo experiments measuring the response of rats to APICA and similar drugs found that APICA had a similar potency to Δ9-THC and around a third the potency of JWH-018. In comparison to these other cannabinoids, APICA appeared to elicit a longer duration of effect. Caution should be exercised in interpreting studies using animals, however, as effects may differ significantly in humans.[5]

Pharmacological studies have reported EC50 values of 6.89 ± 0.11nM at CB1 and 7.54 ± 0.11nM at CB2.[6] It is likely that APICA shares many of the in vivo properties of Δ9-THC. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the cannabinoid high has yet to be scientifically validated.

In vivo metabolic studies on APICA have shown that the drug is fully metabolized with none of the original compound detectable in urine. The major metabolites were mono- or dihydroxylated on the adamantyl ring system and monohydroxylated on the pentyl chain.[7]

Subjective effects

The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include injury or death.

Physical effects
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Cognitive effects
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Auditory effects
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Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:


Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational APICA use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because APICA has very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried APICA within the community suggests that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this substance at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

It is advised that those with severe pre-existing mental conditions should not ingest these substances due to the way they strongly amplify one's current state of mind and emotions. Also, as with THC and cannabis, prolonged usage of synthetic cannabinoids including APICA may increase one's disposition to mental illness and psychosis,[17] particularly in vulnerable individuals with risk factors for psychotic illnesses (like a past or family history of schizophrenia).[18][19][20]

As synthetic cannabinoids are active in the milligram range (with below 5mg being a common dose), it is important to use proper precautions when dosing to avoid a negative experience and injury to oneself or others.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other synthetic cannabinoids, the chronic use of APICA can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of APICA develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). APICA presents cross-tolerance with all cannabinoids, meaning that after the consumption of APICA all cannabinoids will have a reduced effect.

Overdose

It has been reported that overdose on this substance will cause physical discomfort including heart palpitations, vertigo and sedation at much lower than dangerous doses, usually causing the user to suffer large amounts of anxiety and paranoia, or to fall asleep.[citation needed]

Legality

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This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

  • United Kingdom - APICA is a class B drug under the third-generation synthetic cannabinoids generic definition, which came into effect on the 14th December 2016 and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import. [21]
  • China: As of October 2015 APICA is a controlled substance in China.[22]

See also

External links

References

  1. Samuel D. Banister, Jordyn Stuart, Richard C. Kevin, Amelia Edington, Mitchell Longworth, Shane M. Wilkinson, Corinne Beinat, Alexandra S. Buchanan, David E. Hibbs, Michelle Glass, Mark Connor, Iain S. McGregor, and Michael Kassiou. "Effects of Bioisosteric Fluorine in Synthetic Cannabinoid Designer Drugs JWH-018, AM-2201, UR-144, XLR-11, PB-22, 5F-PB-22, APICA, and STS-135" Chemical Neuroscience. 2015;6(8);1445-1458;doi:10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00107 (Pubmed / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25921407
  2. 2NE1 (Wikipedia) | https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2NE1
  3. Nahoko Uchiyama, Maiko Kawamura, Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri, Yukihiro Goda. "Identification of two new-type synthetic cannabinoids, N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (APICA) and N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide(APINACA), and detection of five synthetic cannabinoids, AM-1220, AM-2233, AM-1241, CB-13 (CRA-13), and AM-1248, as designer drugs in illegal products" Forensic Toxicology (2012) 30: 114-125. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11419-012-0136-7
  4. Synthetic cannabinoids in Europe - Interactive: demystifying the chemistry (EMCDDA) | http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/topics/pods/synthetic-cannabinoids
  5. Banister SD, Wilkinson SM, Longworth M, et al. The Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Adamantane-Derived Indoles: Cannabimimetic Drugs of Abuse. ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 2013;4(7):1081-1092. doi:10.1021/cn400035r. (PMC/NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3715837/
  6. Samuel D. Banister, Jordyn Stuart, Richard C. Kevin, Amelia Edington, Mitchell Longworth, Shane M. Wilkinson, Corinne Beinat, Alexandra S. Buchanan, David E. Hibbs, Michelle Glass, Mark Connor, Iain S. McGregor, and Michael Kassiou. "Effects of Bioisosteric Fluorine in Synthetic Cannabinoid Designer Drugs JWH-018, AM-2201, UR-144, XLR-11, PB-22, 5F-PB-22, APICA, and STS-135" Chemical Neuroscience (2015). 6(8). 1445-1458. doi:10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00107
  7. Tim Sobolevsky, Ilya Prasolov and Grigory Rodchenkov. "Study on the phase I metabolism of novel synthetic cannabinoids, APICA and its fluorinated analogue". Drug Testing and Analysis. 2015;7(2);131-142;doi:10.1002/dta.1756 (Pubmed / NCBI) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428705
  8. Mechoulam, R. (1984). Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-5772-1.
  9. How Marijuana Works | http://science.howstuffworks.com/marijuana4.htm
  10. How Marijuana Works | http://science.howstuffworks.com/marijuana4.htm
  11. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00703.x/abstract
  12. Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials | http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.03970.x/abstract
  13. Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence - The British Journal of Psychiatry Jan 2004, 184 (2) 110-117 | http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/184/2/110.short
  14. Every-Palmer, S. Synthetic cannabinoid use and psychosis: an explorative study. Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2011.
  15. “Spice” Girls: Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication - The Journal of Emergency Medicine Volume 40, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 296–299 (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736467910008802
  16. A Teenager With Agitation: Higher Than She Should Have Climbed - Pediatric Emergency Care: June 2010 - Volume 26 - Issue 6 - pp 462-465 | http://journals.lww.com/pec-online/Abstract/2010/06000/A_Teenager_With_Agitation__Higher_Than_She_Should.16.aspx
  17. Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence - The British Journal of Psychiatry Jan 2004, 184 (2) 110-117 | http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/184/2/110.short
  18. Every-Palmer, S. Synthetic cannabinoid use and psychosis: an explorative study. Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2011.
  19. “Spice” Girls: Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication - The Journal of Emergency Medicine Volume 40, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 296–299 (ScienceDirect) | http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736467910008802
  20. A Teenager With Agitation: Higher Than She Should Have Climbed - Pediatric Emergency Care: June 2010 - Volume 26 - Issue 6 - pp 462-465 | http://journals.lww.com/pec-online/Abstract/2010/06000/A_Teenager_With_Agitation__Higher_Than_She_Should.16.aspx
  21. The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2016 (Legislation.gov.uk) | http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2016/1109/made
  22. 关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知 | http://www.sfda.gov.cn/WS01/CL0056/130753.html