|Summary sheet: Ethylmorphine|
|Common names||Ethylmorphine, codethyline, dionine|
|Systematic name||7,8-didehydro-4,5-α-epoxy- 3-ethoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-α-ol|
|Routes of Administration|
Ethylmorphine, also known as codethyline and dionine, is a semi-synthetic morphinan opioid first created by Merck in 1884 and used as a weaker alternative to morphine. Today, it is most commonly used as an antitussive which is available in cough syrup preparations like Cocillana, Cosylan, Solvipect comp. (in combination with guaifenesin) and Lepheton (in combination with ephedrine), or in tablet form sold as Tussipax (in combination with codeine). Cough syrup preparations commonly include a mild laxative to counter the constipation which is a common side effect of opioids.
Ethylmorphine is also used in ophthalmic preparations as dionine to treat inflammations of the eye. In 1904, an ethylmorphine preparation was described as "a new ocular analgesic."
Ethylmorphine, or 3-ethylmorphine, is an opioid of the morphinan class. Ethylmorphine and other molecules of this class contain a polycyclic core of three benzene rings fused in a zig-zag pattern called phenanthrene. A fourth nitrogen containing ring is fused to the phenanthrene at R9 and R13 with the nitrogen member looking at R17 of the combined structure. This structure is called morphinan.
Ethylmorphine, along with other morphinans, contains an ether bridge between two of its rings, connecting R4 and R5 through an oxygen group. It contains a hydroxy group (OH-) bound at R6 and a methyl group located on the nitrogen atom at R17. On the same ring containing the hydroxy group, ethylmorphine contains a double bond which is shared with codeine and morphine.
Ethylmorphine is closely related to morphine; both contain an oxygen group at R3, but this oxygen group in ethylphenidate is substituted by an ethyl group (making an ethoxy group). Ethylmorphine differs from the naturally occurring codeine (3-methylmorphine) only in having an ethoxy group in place of the methoxy group (they are homologous). It is also analogous to the other morphinans such as dihydrocodeine, heroin, hydrocodone, and oxycodone.
The active metabolites of ethylmorphine, notably morphine, exert their effects by binding to and activating the μ-opioid receptor. This occurs because opioids structurally mimic endogenous endorphins which are naturally found within the body and also work upon the μ-opioid receptor set. The way in which opioids structurally mimic these natural endorphins results in their euphoria, pain relief and anxiolytic effects. This is because endorphins are responsible for reducing pain, causing sleepiness, and feelings of pleasure. They can be released in response to pain, strenuous exercise, orgasm, or general excitement.
Ethylmorphine has been described as less potent than morphine but slightly more potent than codeine.
The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. These effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances of inducing a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.
The general head space of ethylmorphine is described by many as one of intense euphoria, relaxation, anxiety suppression and pain relief.
- Pain relief
- Euphoria - This particular substance can be considered as less intense in its physical euphoria when compared with that of morphine or diacetylmorphine (heroin).
- Respiratory depression
- Cough suppression
- Difficulty urinating
- Stomach cramps
- Pupil constriction
- Decreased libido
- Appetite suppression
- Orgasm suppression
- Euphoria - Like codeine, this particular substance can be considered as less intense in its cognitive euphoria when compared with that of morphine or diacetylmorphine (heroin) due to the upper limit of how much can be converted into its active form through metabolism. It is still, however, capable of extreme intensity and overwhelming bliss at heavier dosages with a low tolerance. The sensation itself can be described as powerful and overwhelming feeling of emotional bliss, contentment, and happiness.
- Anxiety suppression
- Compulsive redosing
- Dream potentiation
There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
Ethylmorphine has a low toxicity relative to dose. However, despite its relatively low toxicity for an opioid, at least one death has been attributed to oral consumption of ethylmorphine alone, without the presence of other depressants. As with all opioids, long-term effects can vary but can include diminished libido, apathy and memory loss. It is also potentially lethal when mixed with depressants like alcohol or benzodiazepines.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.
Tolerance and addiction potential
As with other opioids, the chronic use of ethylmorphine can be ethylmorphine very addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal symptoms may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
Tolerance to many of the effects of ethylmorphine develops with prolonged and repeated use. The rate at which this occurs develops at different rates for different effects, with tolerance to the constipation-inducing effects developing particularly slowly for instance. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Ethylmorphine presents cross-tolerance with all other opioids, meaning that after the consumption of ethylmorphine all opioids will have a reduced effect.
Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when taken with other substances. The following lists some known dangerous combinations, but cannot be guaranteed to include all of them. Independent research should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some interactions listed have been sourced from Tripsit.
- Depressants (1,4-Butanediol, 2M2B, alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, GHB/GBL, methaqualone, opioids) - This combination potentiates the muscle relaxation, amnesia, sedation, and respiratory depression caused by one another. At higher doses, it can lead to a sudden, unexpected loss of consciousness along with a dangerous amount of depressed respiration. There is also an increased risk of suffocating on one's vomit while unconscious. If nausea or vomiting occurs before a loss of consciousness, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it.
- Stimulants - It can be dangerous to combine depressants with stimulants due to the risk of accidental excessive intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effect of depressants, which is the main factor most people use to gauge their level of intoxication. Once the stimulant effects wear off, the effects of the depressant will significantly increase, leading to intensified disinhibition, motor control loss, and dangerous black-out states. This combination can also potentially result in severe dehydration if one's fluid intake is not closely monitored. If choosing to combine these substances, one should strictly limit themselves to a pre-set schedule of dosing only a certain amount per hour until a maximum threshold has been reached.
- Dissociatives - This combination can unpredictably potentiate the amnesia, sedation, motor control loss and delusions that can be caused by each other. It may also result in a sudden loss of consciousness accompanied by a dangerous degree of respiratory depression. If nausea or vomiting occurs before consciousness is lost, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it.
- Internationally: Ethylmorphine is listed in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs in Schedule III.
- France: Tussipax tablets containing 10 mg of ethylmorphine and 10 mg of codeine are sold over the counter.
- Germany: Ethylmorphine is controlled under BtMG Anlage II, making it illegal to manufacture, import, possess, sell, or transfer it without a license. There is an exception for preparations containing up to 2.5% or up to 100mg ethylmorphine per unit, which can be prescribed on a narcotic prescription form.
- Norway: Cosylan and Solvipect comp. cough syrups containing ethylmorphine hydrochloride 1.7mg/mL and 2.5mg/mL, respectively, are regulated in prescription Class B. They are commonly prescribed for dry cough.
- Sweden: Cocillana-Etyfin cough syrup containing ethylmorphine 2.5mg/mL is sold as a prescription drug. The same goes for Lepheton, a combination containing 0.82 mg/mL ethylmorphine hydrochloride and 2.05 mg/mL ephedrine.
- United States: No preparations containing ethylmorphine are on the market in the US. Pure ethylmorphine is listed in Schedule II and combination products containing no more than ethylmorphine 3mg/mL (or 15 mg per dosage unit together with a non-narcotic active ingredient) are listed in Schedule III. Preparations containing no more than ethylmorphine 1mg/mL or 1mg/g are listed in schedule V. This is similar to codeine, but unlike codeine, ethylmorphine is not available for medical purposes in the United States.
- United Kingdom: Ethylmorphine is a Class B controlled substance under the Misuse of Drugs Act. This is the same class as codeine, but unlike codeine, there exist no legal preparations of ethylmorphine.
In general, ethylmorphine and codeine, owing to their structural and pharmacological similarity, are treated similarly by law in most countries.
- Risks of Combining Depressants (Tripsit) | https://tripsit.me/combining-depressants/
- Ethylrnorphine concentrations in human samples in an overdose case | http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs002040050057