Visual enhancements

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Visual enhancements are defined as any subjective effect which improves one's ability to perceive the external environment through their sense of sight.

This page lists and describes the various visual effects which can occur under the influence of certain psychoactive compounds.

Acuity enhancement

Main article: Acuity enhancement
Visual acuity enhancement by StingrayZ - This animation serves as a replication of visual acuity enhancement, which is a common psychedelic effect. It demonstrates the general differences between normal vision and acuity enhancement by shifting between the two states. There is also a subtle amount of visual drifting within this replication.

Acuity enhancement is defined as a heightening of the clearness and clarity of vision. This results in the visual details of the external environment becoming sharpened to the point where the edges of objects become perceived as extremely focused, clear, and defined. The experience of acuity enhancement can be likened to bringing a camera or projector lens that was slightly blurry into focus. At its highest level, a person may experience the ability to observe and comprehend their entire visual field simultaneously, including their peripheral vision. This is in contrast to the default sober state where a person is only able to perceive the small area of central vision in detail.[1]

While under the influence of this effect, it is common for people to suddenly notice patterns and details in the environment they may have never previously noticed or appreciated. For example, the complexity and perceived beauty of the visual input often become apparent when looking at sceneries, nature, and everyday textures.

Acuity enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as color enhancement and pattern recognition enhancement.[2][3] It is most commonly induced under the influence of mild dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of certain stimulants and dissociatives such as MDMA or 3-MeO-PCP.

Image examples

 Caption
Experience:300µg LSD - Togetherness and the Silent Dusk
Omberacetam
3,4-CTMP
LSM-775
MiPLA
Phenylpiracetam
4-HO-EPT
DMT
2C-B-FLY
ΑMT
4-AcO-DiPT
4-HO-MET
PARGY-LAD
MPT
4-HO-MPT
Experience:3 drops of cinnamon bark oil/ 5 drops of german chamomile oil/ 2mL of nutmeg oil in lecithin - experiments with nutmeg oil
Experience: 15mg 2C-B (oral) - A pleasant low-dose evening with Nexus
1P-LSD
Experience:2.5g Mushrooms + 500mg DMT
25D-NBOMe
5-MeO-DALT
Experience:3 Grams of Mushrooms - Reset on my Life, Experiencing Satori and the Cosmic Perspective
AL-LAD
Phenethylamine (compound)
DOM
2C-P
5-MeO-DMT
Experience:40mg - Brothermind and the Forest's Hand
Experience:337mg DMT fumarate - A Day With DMT
Bufotenin
Proscaline
Experience:3g mimosa / 3g syrian rue - Connecting with my body
Βk-2C-B
2C-E
Ibogaine
2C-I
25N-NBOMe
Experience:26mg - Stage 3 Trip
Experience:BK-2C-B - Various experiences
LSA
Piracetam
LSD
Moss on tree bark.jpgMoss on tree Bark by Chelsea Morgan
Memantine
25I-NBOMe
Experience:25mg 3-MeO-PCP - Enhanced film experience
Escaline
2C-T-7
Efavirenz
Oxiracetam
25I-NBOH
3-MeO-PCP
DOI
Allylescaline
Bromo-DragonFLY
DET
TMA-6
5-MeO-MiPT
DOB
4-HO-DiPT
Experience:60mg 4-AcO-DMT Nonstop Quasi-Orgasmic Objectless Euphoria
ETH-LAD
MiPT
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
Experience:800 seeds LSA - My First Trip Ever
Experience: 1.5g Psilocybe Cubensis - Analysis of body and mind
Experience:20mg - I looked up and saw an angry god-like figure made of clouds glaring down at me
Experience: 5-EAPB (60mg) + 2-FMA (20mg) + 4-AcO-DMT (10mg) - Emotional catharsis
25B-NBOH
4-AcO-MET
5-MAPB
Ayahuasca
MET
2C-B
Experience:LSA (20 HWBR seeds) – A pleasant adventure with a harsh body load
2-Aminoindane
Amanita muscaria
4-HO-MiPT
4-HO-DET
2C-C
Experience:4.5g - The Grand Introduction to Beauty and Fear
Experience:150mg MDMA + 20mg 2C-B - I designed it this way myself
LSZ
Experience:Mushrooms and Snuff Films -- Trip Report (3.5 grams)
5-MeO-DiPT
25C-NBOH
Citicoline
1B-LSD
DPT
3C-E
Psilocin
3-MeO-PCE
4-AcO-DMT
4-AcO-DET
25C-NBOMe
Lisdexamfetamine
Experience:2mg 25C-NBOMe - Experimental trip to test personal limits of NBOMes
2C-D
Coluracetam
5-MeO-DiBF
Mescaline
Experience: 36mg 4-AcO-DiPT - Truly, one for the psychedelic animals among us
Experience:5.3g psilocybe cubensis - Dimensional Circumstance and the Fabric of Understanding
Aniracetam
ALD-52
4-AcO-MiPT
Towel.jpgTowel by Chelsea Morgan
2C-T-21
MDA
2C-T-2
Pramiracetam
Desoxypipradrol
25B-NBOMe
Psilocybin mushrooms
Tree Bark.jpgTree Bark by Chelsea Morgan
1P-ETH-LAD
Experience:4x 200ug tabs - You do not need to understand
TMA-2
DOC
PRO-LAD
Methallylescaline
MDAI
4-HO-DPT
Experience:LSD (120ug) - An Overdose of LSD and Trip into Insanity
Experience:3.5g psilocybe cubensis - Relinquishing of Material Chains/Fear and Desolation

Colour enhancement

Main article: Colour enhancement

Colour enhancement is defined as an intensification of the brightness and vividness of colors in the external environment. During this experience, reds may seem “redder”, greens may seem “greener", and all colors will likely appear much more distinct, complex, and visually intense than they comparatively would be during everyday sober living.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] At higher levels, this effect can sometimes result in seeing colours which are perceived as surreal or seemingly impossible.[4][5]

Colour enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as acuity enhancement and pattern recognition enhancement.[2][3] It is most commonly induced under the influence of mild dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of certain stimulants and dissociatives such as MDMA, ketamine[10], or 3-MeO-PCP.

Image examples

 Caption
Oxiracetam
Experience: 15mg 2C-B (oral) - A pleasant low-dose evening with Nexus
Experience:225ug LSD + 9g cubensis - Galactic Melt and the Meverse
Experience:4-AcO-DMT + 200mg Pill
4-HO-EPT
PARGY-LAD
2C-D
JWH-018
4-HO-DPT
MPT
Paradise island by Xanny.jpgParadise island by Subsentience
Bromo-DragonFLY
Experience:4.5g - The Grand Introduction to Beauty and Fear
Phenylpiracetam
Experience: 36mg 4-AcO-DiPT - Truly, one for the psychedelic animals among us
MET
4-AcO-MET
Mescaline
Enhancement of colours - woods.jpgThe Woods by Chelsea Morgan
JWH-073
1P-LSD
MDA
MDEA
EPT
Experience:3.5g psilocybe cubensis - Relinquishing of Material Chains/Fear and Desolation
3C-E
DOC
Chur City in Switzerland.jpgChur, Switzerland by Naps284
PRO-LAD
Omberacetam
Experience:1mg 25c-NBOMe - Experiment in my room
Coluracetam
Experience:4-HO-MiPT / A care free psychedelic getaway
Experience:1000 Morning Glory seeds - Rediscovering the Self
Experience:120mg - Garden of The Gods
Experience: 5-EAPB (60mg) + 2-FMA (20mg) + 4-AcO-DMT (10mg) - Emotional catharsis
2C-I
25I-NBOMe
Experience:60mg 4-AcO-DMT Nonstop Quasi-Orgasmic Objectless Euphoria
5F-PB-22
25B-NBOH
Experience:1050 µg 1cP-LSD - The matrix
25I-NBOH
DMT
Experience:2.5g Syrian rue + 6g Mimosa Hostilis - Becoming God (my second experience with unity)
4-AcO-DET
Enhancement of colour rose.jpgRose by Chelsea Morgan
Experience:5.3g psilocybe cubensis - Dimensional Circumstance and the Fabric of Understanding
2C-H
LSD
5-MeO-DiBF
2C-E
Experience:40mg - Brothermind and the Forest's Hand
Efavirenz
MDAI
GABAergic hallucinogens
Experience:800 seeds LSA - My First Trip Ever
25C-NBOMe
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Chameleon.jpgChameleon by Anonymous.
LSA
Methallylescaline
4-AcO-MiPT
DOI
Experience:2 tabs DOB - My DOB Nightmare
ETH-LAD
TMA-6
LSZ
Experience:25mg 3-MeO-PCP - Enhanced film experience
Bufotenin
25B-NBOMe
Experience:2C-P (approx. 35mg) - Asymmetrical Terror and the Geometric Sea
3-MMC
Experience:300µg AL-LAD - Don't worry, because you're everyone!
Psilocybin mushrooms
Experience:A combination of DOC, 5-MAPB, 5-MeO-DMT, ETH-LAD, Cannabis, Pentedrone
4-HO-MiPT
Pramiracetam
Experience: 22mg 2C-B (oral) / 100ug 1P-LSD (sublingual) - My first time tripping alone (2 days in a row)
Experience:75mg 3-FMA - Perfect Blend of Euphoria and Functionality
Experience:3g mimosa / 3g syrian rue - Connecting with my body
Tree.jpgJapanese Garden by Anonymous
4-AcO-DMT
Experience:3 Grams of Mushrooms - Reset on my Life, Experiencing Satori and the Cosmic Perspective
2C-P
2C-C
3-MeO-PCE
2C-T-21
Experience:4x 200ug tabs - You do not need to understand
6-APB
THJ-018
ΑMT
Allylescaline
1P-ETH-LAD
5-MeO-DALT
DPT
ALD-52
2C-T-7
Experience:150mg MDMA + 20mg 2C-B - I designed it this way myself
Ayahuasca
DiPT
Pregabalin
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
5-MeO-DiPT
Psilocin
Experience:225mg Pregabalin +Cannabis -Bliss and Serenity; a hedonistic evening
4-HO-DiPT
Βk-2C-B
6-APDB
DOM
25N-NBOMe
LSM-775
Experience:~150mg MDA(oral) - a case of mistaken identity
MiPT
Experience:BK-2C-B - Various experiences
Experience:300µg LSD - Togetherness and the Silent Dusk
Proscaline
THJ-2201
TMA-2
Experience:337mg DMT fumarate - A Day With DMT
Experience:300mg DXM + 25mg DMT + Cannabis - A crazy night
Amanita muscaria
2C-B-FLY
Memantine
Experience:250mg DXM - DXM Itch and Trip Report
Piracetam
25C-NBOH
4-HO-MPT
5-MeO-MiPT
AL-LAD
MiPLA
Ibogaine
2C-B
Aniracetam
4-HO-DET
Escaline
Experience:Unknown dosage / 1 tab DOC - Psychedelia Turned Into Stimulant Psychosis
Experience:25mg Deschloroketamine - My first time orally dosing DCK
Experience:Mushrooms and Snuff Films -- Trip Report (3.5 grams)
4-AcO-DiPT
DOB
4-HO-MET
2C-T-2
1B-LSD
MDMA
DET
Phenethylamine (compound)
25D-NBOMe
Enhancementofcolour.jpgShowing differences by Chelsea Morgan
4-FA
Experience:Unknown Dose DOC (Insufflated) - Overdosing and Terifying Ego Death
Experience:3-MeO-PCP - Extreme psychosis

Frame rate enhancement

Visual Processing Acceleration is defined as an increase in the speed at which a person can perceive and interpret rapidly occurring events. It is most commonly experienced during events which are felt to be either dangerous, intense, or highly novel.[11][12][13][14] The effect gives the appearance that the external environment is being viewed in slow motion and that brief moments of time have been "stretched out". For example, fast moving objects such as birds, insects, and cars may begin to present themselves as clearly viewable instead of as fleeting blurs of motion, as they may during every day sobriety.

In terms of its intensity, this effect usually manifests subtly, only slightly slowing down a person's perception of motion. However, in rare cases, this effect can temporarily slow the visual perception of time to a near stand-still, causing events to appear dramatically slower.

Visual processing acceleration is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as acuity enhancement and thought acceleration. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline.

Magnification

Main article: Magnification
Magnification by StingrayZ - This is an animated example of the common psychedelic visual effect known as magnification. There is also a significant amount of visual drifting present within the animation.

Magnification is defined as the experience of distant details within one's visual field appearing closer and more "zoomed in" than they actually are due to both visual enhancements and hallucinatory effects.[15] This can give the perception that one is seeing objects from greater distances than is usually possible within everyday life.

At its lower levels, this can allow people to see nearby objects (such as within reaching distance) as much closer than they really are, resulting in the perception that their visual capabilities have been enhanced.[15] At its higher levels, this can induce the perception of seeing distant objects as if they were right in front of the user despite their distance. These distances can range from several feet to hundreds of meters. Since this is most likely a physiological impossibility, it suggests that higher level magnification may actually be a seamless hallucinatory state in which the details of distant visual input are predictively simulated in a realistic and convincing manner.

It's worth noting that this effect is considerably more likely to occur if a person spends extended periods of time staring at an object or scene within the distance.

Magnification is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as acuity enhancement and pattern recognition enhancement. It is a rare effect that is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline.

Pattern recognition enhancement

Face in a cloud by Neil Usher - This image serves as an example of pattern recognition enhancement.

Pattern recognition enhancement is defined as an increase in a person's ability and tendency to recognize patterns (usually faces) within vague stimuli.

This innate ability which human beings possess in everyday life is referred to by the scientific literature as pareidolia and is a well documented phenomenon.[16][17][18] Common examples of this include spotting faces in everyday objects, such as the front of a car, or seeing different objects in clouds.[8]

During this effect, pareidolia can be significantly more pronounced than it would usually be during a sober state.[19] For example, remarkably detailed images may appear embedded in scenery, everyday objects may look like faces, and clouds may appear as fantastical objects, all without any visual alterations taking place. Once an image has been perceived within an object or landscape, the mind may further exaggerate this recognition through the hallucinatory effect known as transformations, which goes beyond pareidolia and becomes a standard visual hallucination.

Pattern recognition enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as acuity enhancement and colour enhancement.[2][3] It is most commonly induced under the influence of mild dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline.

Image examples

 Caption
2C-B-FLY
Experience:0.75g MDMA - Possibly some MDA through metabolisation?
Face within tree bark.jpgFace within tree bark by Bev Doolittle
Methallylescaline
3-MMC
Experience:4.5g - The Grand Introduction to Beauty and Fear
Faceincloud.jpgFace in a cloud by Neil Usher
LSM-775
Ayahuasca
LSZ
Squinting rooftop.jpgSquinting eyes on a roof top by Anonymous
Experience: 80mg EPT - Slight improvement
ETH-LAD
DOC
LSD
LSA
25C-NBOH
Experience:5g Mushrooms - Failed attempt at a Terence Mckenna style trip.
6-APDB
25B-NBOH
4-AcO-DET
4-AcO-MiPT
DOM
2C-I
Experience:2mg 25C-NBOMe - Experimental trip to test personal limits of NBOMes
DOI
ΑMT
1P-ETH-LAD
ALD-52
25I-NBOMe
4-HO-EPT
Mescaline
25B-NBOMe
25C-NBOMe
Experience:20mg 4-HO-DET, Triping for my birthday
1P-LSD
Experience: 15mg 2C-B (oral) - A pleasant low-dose evening with Nexus
Escaline
Bromo-DragonFLY
Proscaline
Experience:~150mg MDA(oral) - a case of mistaken identity
5-MeO-MiPT
Smiley face.jpgSmile in tree bark by Chelsea Morgan
AL-LAD
EPT
MiPT
Experience:Mushrooms and Snuff Films -- Trip Report (3.5 grams)
Shuplyak faces 10.jpgOptical illusion by Oleg Shuplyak
5-MeO-DiPT
Skullflower.jpgSkullflower by Anonymous
5-MeO-DiBF
DMT
Experience:1000 Morning Glory seeds - Rediscovering the Self
2C-T-7
DPT
MPT
TMA-6
Experience:2C-P (approx. 35mg) - Asymmetrical Terror and the Geometric Sea
PARGY-LAD
The Forest Has Eyes.jpgThe Forest Has Eyes by Bev Doolittle
Experience:3.5g psilocybe cubensis - Relinquishing of Material Chains/Fear and Desolation
5-MeO-DALT
4-HO-MiPT
Experience:20mg - I looked up and saw an angry god-like figure made of clouds glaring down at me
Opticalillusion1.jpgOptical illusion by Oleg Shuplyak
DOB
Absents of the mermaid.jpgAbsents of the mermaid by Octavio Ocampo
4-AcO-DMT
1B-LSD
2C-T-21
3C-E
4-HO-MPT
2C-D
4-AcO-MET
Experience:Unknown dosage / 3 tabs - Ego death and a total break through in the snow
25I-NBOH
Experience:BK-2C-B - Various experiences
Eye.jpgEye of the tower by Davide Lombardi
DET
MDMA
4-FA
Βk-2C-B
Psilocybin mushrooms
6-APB
Experience:300µg LSD - Togetherness and the Silent Dusk
Experience:40mg - Brothermind and the Forest's Hand
MDEA
Experience: 200µg 1P-LSD (sublingual) + 12mg CBD - The Vortex of Empathy
2C-P
2C-T-2
Experience:Unknown dosage / 1 tab DOC - Psychedelia Turned Into Stimulant Psychosis
Experience:3 Grams of Mushrooms - Reset on my Life, Experiencing Satori and the Cosmic Perspective
TMA-2
Psilocin
4-HO-DiPT
2C-B
Experience:230ug of LSD- An amazing adventure by vikilikepsych
Experience:20mg (insufflated) - permanent all-encompassing states of unity and interconnectedness
Efavirenz
Harmala alkaloid
4-HO-MET
MiPLA
PRO-LAD
MDA
Experience:150mg MDMA + 20mg 2C-B - I designed it this way myself
2C-C
2C-E
Experience:120µg LSD - First Bad Acid Trip, Psychosis
MET
Experience:250 seeds - Harsh body load
4-HO-DET
4-HO-DPT
Storm-face.jpgFace within a cloud by Denis Farmer
25D-NBOMe
Allylescaline
Ibogaine
25N-NBOMe
Experience:25mg - A labyrinth of organs and a storybook walk
Experience: 22mg 2C-B (oral) / 100ug 1P-LSD (sublingual) - My first time tripping alone (2 days in a row)


See also

References

  1. Sardegna, Jill; Shelly, Susan; Rutzen, Allan Richard; Scott M Steidl (2002). The Encyclopedia of Blindness and Vision Impairment. Infobase Publishing. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-8160-6623-0. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Papoutsis, Ioannis; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Stefanidou, Maria; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotiris (2014). "25B-NBOMe and its precursor 2C-B: modern trends and hidden dangers". Forensic Toxicology. 33 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1007/s11419-014-0242-9. ISSN 1860-8965. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Corazza, Ornella; Albano, Gabriella; Valeriani, Giuseppe; Santacroce, Rita; Bolzan Mariotti Posocco, Flaminia; Cinosi, Eduardo; Simonato, Pierluigi; Martinotti, Giovanni; Bersani, Giuseppe; Schifano, Fabrizio (2014). "25C-NBOMe: Preliminary Data on Pharmacology, Psychoactive Effects, and Toxicity of a New Potent and Dangerous Hallucinogenic Drug". BioMed Research International. 2014: 1–6. doi:10.1155/2014/734749. ISSN 2314-6133. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Hartman, Alan M.; Hollister, Leo E. (1963). "Effect of mescaline, lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin on color perception". Psychopharmacologia. 4 (6): 441–451. doi:10.1007/BF00403349. ISSN 0033-3158. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Kleinman, J. E.; Gillin, J. C.; Wyatt, R. J. (1977). "A Comparison of the Phenomenology of Hallucinogens and Schizophrenia From Some Autobiographical Accounts*". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 3 (4): 560–586. doi:10.1093/schbul/3.4.560. ISSN 0586-7614. 
  6. . doi:10.3389/Ffnhum.2015.00346.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. Obreshkova, D., Kandilarov, I., Angelova, V. T., Iliev, Y., Atanasov, P., & Fotev, P. S. (2017). PHARMACO-TOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND ANALYSIS OF PHENYLALKYLAMINE AND INDOLYLALKYLAMINE HALLUCINOGENS (REVIEW). PHARMACIA, 64(1), 41-42. http://bsphs.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Angelova.pdf
  8. 8.0 8.1 Abraham, Henry David (1983). "Visual Phenomenology of the LSD Flashback". Archives of General Psychiatry. 40 (8): 884. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1983.01790070074009. ISSN 0003-990X. 
  9. Baggott, M.J.; Coyle, J.R.; Erowid, E.; Erowid, F.; Robertson, L.C. (2011). "Abnormal visual experiences in individuals with histories of hallucinogen use: A web-based questionnaire". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 114 (1): 61–67. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.09.006. ISSN 0376-8716. 
  10. Dillon, P (2003). "Patterns of use and harms associated with non-medical ketamine use". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 69 (1): 23–28. doi:10.1016/S0376-8716(02)00243-0. ISSN 0376-8716. 
  11. Time Really Does Seem to Slow Down for Athletes (Gizmodo) | https://gizmodo.com/5940562/time-really-does-seem-to-slow-down-for-athletes
  12. Wittmann, Marc; Leland, David S.; Churan, Jan; Paulus, Martin P. (2007). "Impaired time perception and motor timing in stimulant-dependent subjects". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 90 (2-3): 183–192. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.03.005. ISSN 0376-8716. 
  13. Arstila, Valtteri (2012). "Time Slows Down during Accidents". Frontiers in Psychology. 3. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00196. ISSN 1664-1078. 
  14. Burr, David; Stetson, Chess; Fiesta, Matthew P.; Eagleman, David M. (2007). "Does Time Really Slow Down during a Frightening Event?". PLoS ONE. 2 (12): e1295. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001295. ISSN 1932-6203. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Fischer, Roland; Hill, Richard; Thatcher, Karen; Scheib, James (1970). "Psilocybin-induced contraction of nearby visual space". Agents and Actions. 1 (4): 190–197. doi:10.1007/BF01965761. ISSN 0065-4299. 
  16. Liu, Jiangang; Li, Jun; Feng, Lu; Li, Ling; Tian, Jie; Lee, Kang (2014). "Seeing Jesus in toast: Neural and behavioral correlates of face pareidolia". Cortex. 53: 60–77. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2014.01.013. ISSN 0010-9452. 
  17. Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Kato, Masaharu; Mugitani, Ryoko (2015). "Pareidolia in Infants". PLOS ONE. 10 (2): e0118539. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118539. ISSN 1932-6203. 
  18. Coolidge, F. L., & Coolidge, M. L. (2016, August 09). Why People See Faces When There Are None: Pareidolia. Retrieved February 21, 2018, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/how-think-neandertal/201608/why-people-see-faces-when-there-are-none-pareidolia
  19. Halberstadt, Adam L. (2015). "Recent advances in the neuropsychopharmacology of serotonergic hallucinogens". Behavioural Brain Research. 277: 99–120. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.07.016. ISSN 0166-4328.