Visual enhancements

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Visual enhancements can be defined as any subjective effect which improves one's ability to perceive the external environment through their sense of sight.

This page lists and describes the various visual effects which can occur under the influence of certain psychoactive compounds.

Acuity enhancement

Main article: Acuity enhancement
Visual acuity enhancement by StingrayZ - This animation serves as a replication of visual acuity enhancement, which is a common psychedelic effect. It demonstrates the general differences between normal vision and acuity enhancement by shifting between the two states. There is also a subtle amount of visual drifting within this replication.

Acuity enhancement is a heightening of the clearness and clarity of vision. This results in the visual details of the external environment becoming sharpened to the point where the edges of objects become perceived as extremely focused, clear, and defined. The experience of acuity enhancement can be likened to bringing a camera or projector lens that was slightly blurry into focus. At its highest level, a person may experience the ability to observe and comprehend their entire visual field simultaneously, including their peripheral vision. This is in contrast to the default sober state where a person is only able to perceive the small area of central vision in detail.[1]

While under the influence of this effect, it is very common for people to suddenly notice patterns and details in the environment they may have never previously noticed or appreciated. For example, when looking at sceneries, nature, and everyday textures the complexity and perceived beauty of the visual input often becomes suddenly obvious.

Acuity enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as color enhancement and pattern recognition enhancement.[2][3] It is most commonly induced under the influence of mild dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of certain stimulants and dissociatives such as MDMA or 3-MeO-PCP.

Image examples

Colour enhancement

Main article: Colour enhancement

Colour enhancement is an intensification of the brightness and vividness of colors in the external environment. During this experience, reds may seem “redder”, greens may seem “greener", and all colors will likely appear much more distinct, complex, and visually intense than they comparatively would be during everyday sober living.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] At higher levels, this effect can sometimes result in seeing colours which are perceived as surreal or seemingly impossible.[4][5]

Colour enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as acuity enhancement and pattern recognition enhancement.[8][9] It is most commonly induced under the influence of mild dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of certain stimulants and dissociatives such as MDMA, ketamine[12], or 3-MeO-PCP.

Image examples

Frame rate enhancement

Visual Processing Acceleration increases the speed at which a person can perceive and interpret rapidly occurring events. It is most commonly experienced during events which are felt to be either dangerous, intense, or highly novel.[13][14][15][16] The effect gives the appearance that the external environment is being viewed in slow motion and that brief moments of time have been "stretched out". For example, fast moving objects such as birds, insects, and cars may begin to present themselves as clearly viewable instead of as fleeting blurs of motion, as they may during every day sobriety.

In terms of its intensity, this effect usually manifests subtly, only slightly slowing down a person's perception of motion. However, in rare cases, this effect can temporarily slow the visual perception of time to a near stand-still, causing events to appear dramatically slower.

Visual processing acceleration is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as acuity enhancement and thought acceleration. It is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline.

Magnification

Main article: Magnification
Magnification by StingrayZ - This is an animated example of the common psychedelic visual effect known as magnification. There is also a significant amount of visual drifting present within the animation.

Magnification is the experience of distant details within one's visual field appearing closer and more "zoomed in" than they actually are due to both visual enhancements and hallucinatory effects.[17] This can give the perception that one is seeing objects from greater distances than is usually possible within everyday life.

At its lower levels, this can allow people to see nearby objects (such as within reaching distance) as much closer than they really are, resulting in the perception that their visual capabilities have been enhanced.[17] At its higher levels, this can induce the perception of seeing distant objects as if they were right in front of the user despite their distance. These distances can range from several feet to hundreds of meters. Since this is most likely a physiological impossibility, it suggests that higher level magnification may actually be a seamless hallucinatory state in which the details of distant visual input are predictively simulated in a realistic and convincing manner.

It's worth noting that this effect is considerably more likely to occur if a person spends extended periods of time staring at an object or scene within the distance.

Magnification is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as acuity enhancement and pattern recognition enhancement. It is a rare effect that is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline.

Pattern recognition enhancement

Face in a cloud by Neil Usher - This image serves as an example of pattern recognition enhancement.

Pattern recognition enhancement is an increase in a person's ability and tendency to recognise patterns (usually faces) within vague stimuli.

This innate ability which human beings possess in everyday life is referred to by the scientific literature as pareidolia and is a well documented phenomenon.[18][19][20] Common examples of this include spotting faces in everyday objects, such as the front of a car, or seeing different objects in clouds.[21]

During this effect, pareidolia can be significantly more pronounced than it would usually be during a sober state.[22] For example, remarkably detailed images may appear embedded in scenery, everyday objects may look like faces, and clouds may appear as fantastical objects, all without any visual alterations taking place. Once an image has been perceived within an object or landscape, the mind may further exaggerate this recognition through the hallucinatory effect known as transformations, which goes beyond pareidolia and becomes a standard visual hallucination.

Pattern recognition enhancement is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as acuity enhancement and colour enhancement.[23][24] It is most commonly induced under the influence of mild dosages of psychedelic compounds, such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline.

Image examples


See also

References

  1. Sardegna, Jill; Shelly, Susan; Rutzen, Allan Richard; Scott M Steidl (2002). The Encyclopedia of Blindness and Vision Impairment. Infobase Publishing. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-8160-6623-0. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  2. Papoutsis, I., Nikolaou, P., Stefanidou, M., Spiliopoulou, C., & Athanaselis, S. (2015). 25B-NBOMe and its precursor 2C-B: modern trends and hidden dangers. Forensic Toxicology, 33(1), 4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11419-014-0242-9
  3. Bersani, F. S., Corazza, O., Albano, G., Valeriani, G., Santacroce, R., Bolzan Mariotti Posocco, F., ... & Schifano, F. (2014). 25C-NBOMe: preliminary data on pharmacology, psychoactive effects, and toxicity of a new potent and dangerous hallucinogenic drug. BioMed Research International, 2014. https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/734749
  4. 4.0 4.1 Hartman, A. M., & Hollister, L. E. (1963). Effect of mescaline, lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin on color perception. Psychopharmacologia, 4(6), 449-451. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00403349
  5. 5.0 5.1 Kleinman, J. E., Gillin, J. C., & Wyatt, R. J. (1977). A comparison of the phenomenology of hallucinogens and schizophrenia from some autobiographical accounts. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 3(4), 562-567. https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/3.4.560
  6. Gallimore, A. R. (2015). Restructuring consciousness–the psychedelic state in light of integrated information theory. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 9, 346. https://dx.doi.org/10.3389%2Ffnhum.2015.00346
  7. Obreshkova, D., Kandilarov, I., Angelova, V. T., Iliev, Y., Atanasov, P., & Fotev, P. S. (2017). PHARMACO-TOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND ANALYSIS OF PHENYLALKYLAMINE AND INDOLYLALKYLAMINE HALLUCINOGENS. PHARMACIA, 64(1), 41-42. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Violina_Angelova2/publication/317528151_Pharmaco-toxicological_aspects_and_analysis_of_phenylalkylamine_and_indolylallkylamine_hallucinogens_Review/links/593d59f50f7e9b3317a45adf/Pharmaco-toxicological-aspects-and-analysis-of-phenylalkylamine-and-indolylallkylamine-hallucinogens-Review.pdf
  8. 8.0 8.1 Papoutsis, I., Nikolaou, P., Stefanidou, M., Spiliopoulou, C., & Athanaselis, S. (2015). 25B-NBOMe and its precursor 2C-B: modern trends and hidden dangers. Forensic Toxicology, 33(1), 4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11419-014-0242-9
  9. 9.0 9.1 Bersani, F. S., Corazza, O., Albano, G., Valeriani, G., Santacroce, R., Bolzan Mariotti Posocco, F., ... & Schifano, F. (2014). 25C-NBOMe: preliminary data on pharmacology, psychoactive effects, and toxicity of a new potent and dangerous hallucinogenic drug. BioMed Research International, 2014. https://dx.doi.org/10.1155%2F2014%2F734749
  10. Abraham, H. D. (1983). Visual phenomenology of the LSD flashback. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 40(8), 886-887. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/493119
  11. Baggott, M. J., Coyle, J. R., Erowid, E., Erowid, F., & Robertson, L. C. (2011). Abnormal visual experiences in individuals with histories of hallucinogen use: a Web-based questionnaire. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 114(1), 63-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.09.006
  12. Dillon, P., Copeland, J., & Jansen, K. (2003). Patterns of use and harms associated with non-medical ketamine use. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 69(1), 26. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716(02)00243-0
  13. Time Really Does Seem to Slow Down for Athletes (Gizmodo) | https://gizmodo.com/5940562/time-really-does-seem-to-slow-down-for-athletes
  14. Impaired time perception and motor timing in stimulant-dependent subjects (ncbi) | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1997301/
  15. Time Slows Down during Accidents (ncbi) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3384265/
  16. Does Time Really Slow Down during a Frightening Event? | https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2110887/
  17. 17.0 17.1 Fischer, R., Hill, R., Thatcher, K., & Scheib, J. (1970). Psilocybin-induced contraction of nearby visual space. Agents and actions, 1(4), 195. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01965761
  18. Liu, J., Li, J., Feng, L., Li, L., Tian, J., & Lee, K. (2014). Seeing Jesus in toast: neural and behavioral correlates of face pareidolia. Cortex, 53, 60-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2014.01.013
  19. Kato, M., & Mugitani, R. (2015). Pareidolia in infants. PloS one, 10(2), e0118539. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118539
  20. Coolidge, F. L., & Coolidge, M. L. (2016, August 09). Why People See Faces When There Are None: Pareidolia. Retrieved February 21, 2018, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/how-think-neandertal/201608/why-people-see-faces-when-there-are-none-pareidolia
  21. Abraham, H. D. (1983). Visual phenomenology of the LSD flashback. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 40(8), 886-887. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/493119
  22. Halberstadt, A. L. (2015). Recent advances in the neuropsychopharmacology of serotonergic hallucinogens. Behavioural brain research, 277, 99-120. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.bbr.2014.07.016
  23. Papoutsis, I., Nikolaou, P., Stefanidou, M., Spiliopoulou, C., & Athanaselis, S. (2015). 25B-NBOMe and its precursor 2C-B: modern trends and hidden dangers. Forensic Toxicology, 33(1), 4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11419-014-0242-9
  24. Bersani, F. S., Corazza, O., Albano, G., Valeriani, G., Santacroce, R., Bolzan Mariotti Posocco, F., ... & Schifano, F. (2014). 25C-NBOMe: preliminary data on pharmacology, psychoactive effects, and toxicity of a new potent and dangerous hallucinogenic drug. BioMed Research International, 2014. https://dx.doi.org/10.1155%2F2014%2F734749