Terence McKenna

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Terence McKenna
Hanna jon 1999 mckenna terence.jpg
Terence Mckenna
Born November 16, 1946
Died April 3, 2000 (aged 53)
Known for
  • Advocacy of DMT and psychedelics
  • Ideas on philosophy and metaphysics
  • The Archaic Revival, Food of the Gods
  • True Hallucinations
  • The Invisible Landscape
  • Audio lectures
  • Books
Residence United States
Nationality United States (1925– 2014)
Occupation Chemist, Psychopharmacologist
Fields Psychonautics, Shamanism, Metaphysics, Philosophy,
Notable works The Archaic Revival, Food of the Gods, True Hallucinations, The Invisible Landscape
Spouse(s) Kathleen Harrison
Relative(s) Dennis McKenna (Brother)

Terence Kemp McKenna (November 16, 1946 – April 3, 2000) was an American ethnobotanist, mystic, psychonaut, lecturer, and author who spoke and wrote about a variety of subjects, including psychedelic drugs, plant-based entheogens, shamanism, metaphysics, alchemy, language, philosophy, culture, technology, and the theoretical origins of human consciousness. He was called the "Timothy Leary of the '90s",[1][2] "one of the leading authorities on the ontological foundations of shamanism",[3] and the "intellectual voice of rave culture".[4]

Thought

Psychedelics

Terence McKenna advocated the exploration of altered states of mind via the ingestion of naturally occurring psychedelic substances.[5][6] For example, and in particular, as facilitated by the ingestion of high doses of psychedelic mushrooms,[7][8] ayahuasca and DMT,[9] which he believed was the apotheosis of the psychedelic experience. However, he was less enthralled with the synthetic drugs[10] stating that "I think drugs should come from the natural world and be use-tested by shamanically orientated cultures...one cannot predict the long-term effects of a drug produced in a Laboratory."[11] McKenna always stressed the responsible use of psychedelic plants saying: "Experimenters should be very careful. One must build up to the experience. These are bizarre dimensions of extraordinary power and beauty. There is no set rule to avoid being overwhelmed, but move carefully, reflect a great deal, and always try to map experiences back onto the history of the race and the philosophical and religious accomplishments of the species. All the compounds are potentially dangerous, and all compounds, at sufficient doses or repeated over time, involve risks. The library is the first place to go when looking into taking a new compound."[12] He also recommended and often spoke of taking, what he called, 'heroic doses,'[13] which he defined as five dried grams of psilocybin mushrooms,[14] taken alone, on an empty stomach, in silent darkness and with eyes closed.[15][16] Stating that when taken this way one could expect a profound visionary experience,[17] believing it is only when slain by the power of the mushroom that the message becomes clear.[18]

Although he avoided giving his allegiance to any one interpretation (part of his rejection of monotheism), he was open to the idea of psychedelics as being "trans-dimensional travel"; proposing that DMT sent one to a "parallel dimension"[19] and psychedelics literally, enabled an individual to encounter 'higher dimensional autonomous entities'[20] or what could be ancestors, or spirits of the Earth,[21] saying that if you can trust your own perceptions it appears that you are entering an "ecology of souls."[22] McKenna also put forward the idea that psychedelics were "doorways into the Gaian mind"[23][24] suggesting that "the planet has a kind of intelligence, it can actually open a channel of communication with an individual human being" and that the psychedelic plants were the facilitators of this communication.[25][26] In a more radical version of biophysicist Francis Crick's hypothesis of directed panspermia; another idea McKenna speculated on, was that psilocybin mushrooms are a species of high intelligence,[27] which may have arrived on this planet as spores migrating through space[28] and are attempting to establish a symbiotic relationship with human beings. He postulated that "intelligence, not life, but intelligence may have come here [to Earth] in this spore-bearing life form" pointing out that "I think that theory will probably be vindicated. I think in a hundred years if people do biology they will think it quite silly that people once thought that spores could not be blown from one star system to another by cosmic radiation pressure" and believed that "Few people are in a position to judge its extraterrestrial potential, because few people in the orthodox sciences have ever experienced the full spectrum of psychedelic effects that are unleashed."[29][30][31][32]

During the final years of his life and career, McKenna became very engaged in the theoretical realm of technology. He was an early proponent of the technological singularity[33] and in his last recorded public talk, Psychedelics in The Age of Intelligent Machines, he outlined ties between psychedelics, computation technology, and humans.[34] He also became enamored with the Internet calling it "the birth of [the] global mind",[35] believing it to be a place where psychedelic culture could flourish.[36]

Machine elves

McKenna spoke of hallucinations while on DMT in which he claims to have met intelligent entities he described as "self-transforming machine elves.

"So I did it and...there was a something, like a flower, like a chrysanthemum in orange and yellow that was sort of spinning, spinning, and then it was like I was pushed from behind and I fell through the chrysanthemum into another place that didn't seem like a state of mind, it seemed like another place. And what was going on in this place aside from the tastefully soffit indirect lighting, and the crawling geometric hallucinations along the domed walls, what was happening was that there were a lot of beings in there, what I call self-transforming machine elves. Sort of like jeweled basketballs all dribbling their way toward me. And if they'd had faces they would have been grinning, but they didn't have faces. And they assured me that they loved me and they told me not to be amazed; not to give way to astonishment."

Novelty theory and Timewave Zero

McKenna formulated a concept about the nature of time-based on fractal patterns he claimed to have discovered in the I Ching, which he called novelty theory,[3][5] proposing this predicted the end of time in the year 2012.[5][6][7][8] His promotion of novelty theory and its connection to the Mayan calendar is credited as one of the factors leading to the widespread beliefs about 2012 eschatology.[9] Novelty theory is considered pseudoscience.[10][11]

"Stoned ape" theory of human evolution

In his book Food of the Gods, McKenna proposed that the transformation from humans' early ancestors Homo erectus to the species Homo sapiens mainly had to do with the addition of the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis in its diet,[17][37][38] an event that according to his theory took place in about 100,000 BCE (this is when he believed that the species diverged from the Homo genus).[39][40] McKenna based his theory on the main effects, or alleged effects, produced by the mushroom[29] while citing studies by Roland Fischer et al. from the late 1960s to early 1970s.[41][42]

McKenna stated that due to the desertification of the African continent at that time, human forerunners were forced from the increasingly shrinking tropical canopy in search of new food sources.[43] He believed they would have been following large herds of wild cattle whose dung harbored the insects that, he proposed, were undoubtedly part of their new diet, and would have spotted and started eating Psilocybe cubensis, a dung-loving mushroom often found growing out of cowpat.[43][32][44]

Psilocybe cubensis: the psilocybin-containing mushroom central to McKenna's "stoned ape" theory of human evolution.

McKenna's hypothesis was that low doses of psilocybin improve visual acuity, meaning that the presence of psilocybin in the diet of early pack hunting primates caused the individuals who were consuming psilocybin mushrooms to be better hunters than those who were not, resulting in an increased food supply and in turn a higher rate of reproductive success.[29][32][17][44] Then at slightly higher doses, he contended, the mushroom acts to sexually arouse, leading to a higher level of attention, more energy in the organism, and potential erection in the males,[29][32] rendering it even more evolutionarily beneficial, as it would result in more offspring.[17][44][38] At even higher doses, McKenna proposed that the mushroom would have acted to "dissolve boundaries," promoting community bonding and group sexual activities.[45][44] Consequently, there would be a mixing of genes, greater genetic diversity, and a communal sense of responsibility for the group offspring.[46] At these higher doses, McKenna also argued that psilocybin would be triggering activity in the "language-forming region of the brain", manifesting as music and visions[29] thus catalyzing the emergence of language in early hominids by expanding "their arboreally evolved repertoire of troop signals."[32][17] Also pointing out that it would dissolve the ego and "religious concerns would be at the forefront of the tribe's consciousness, simply because of the power and strangeness of the experience itself."[44][46]

Therefore, according to McKenna, access to and ingestion of mushrooms was an evolutionary advantage to humans' omnivorous hunter-gatherer ancestors,[17][47] also providing humanities first religious impulse.[48] He believed that psilocybin mushrooms were the "evolutionary catalyst"[29] from which language, projective imagination, the arts, religion, philosophy, science, and all of human culture sprang.[32][33][36]

McKenna's "stoned ape" theory has not received attention from the scientific community and has been criticized for a relative lack of citation to any of the paleoanthropological evidence informing our understanding of human origins. His ideas regarding psilocybin and visual acuity have been criticized by suggesting he misrepresented Fischer et al., who published studies about visual perception in terms of various specific parameters, not acuity. Criticism has also been expressed due to the fact that in a separate study on psilocybin-induced transformation of visual space Fischer et al. stated that psilocybin "may not be conducive to the survival of the organism".[49] There is also a lack of evidence that psilocybin increases sexual arousal, and even if it does, it does not necessarily entail an evolutionary advantage. It may even be a disadvantage in the context of the presumed higher sexual competition in Homo Erectus as indicated by its higher sexual dimorphism relative to Homo sapiens.Template:R Others have pointed to civilisations such as the Aztecs, who used psychedelic mushrooms (at least among the Priestly class), that didn't reflect McKenna's model of how psychedelic-using cultures would behave, for example, by carrying out human sacrifice.[45] Although, it has been noted that psilocybin usage by the Aztec civilisation is far removed from the type of usage on which McKenna was speculating.[44] There are also examples of Amazonian tribes such as the Jivaro and the Yanomami who use ayahuasca ceremoniously and who are known to engage in violent behaviour. This, it has been argued, indicates the use of psychedelic plants does not necessarily suppress the ego and create harmonious societies.[44]

Archaic revival

One of the main themes running through McKenna's work, and the title of his second book, was the idea that Western civilization was undergoing what he called an "archaic revival".[29][17][50]

His notion was that Western society has become "sick" and is undergoing a "healing process", in the same way that the human body begins to produce antibodies when it feels itself to be sick, humanity as a collective whole (in the Jungian, sense) was creating "strategies for overcoming the condition of dis-ease" and trying to cure itself, by what he termed as "a reversion to archaic values." McKenna pointed to phenomena including: surrealism, abstract expressionism, body piercing and tattooing, psychedelic drug use, sexual permissiveness, jazz, experimental dance, rave culture, rock-n-roll and catastrophe theory, amongst others, as his evidence that this process was underway.[51][52][53] This idea is linked to McKenna's "stoned ape" theory of human evolution, with him viewing the "archaic revival" as an impulse to return to the symbiotic and blissful relationship he believed humanity once had with the psilocybin mushroom.[17]

In differentiating his idea from the "New Age", a term that he felt trivialized the significance of the next phase in human evolution, McKenna stated that: "The New Age is essentially humanistic psychology '80s-style, with the addition of neo-shamanism, channeling, crystal and herbal healing. The archaic revival is a much larger, more global phenomenon that assumes that we are recovering the social forms of the late neolithic, and reaches far back in the 20th century to Freud, to surrealism, to abstract expressionism, even to a phenomenon like National Socialism which is a negative force. But the stress on ritual, on organized activity, on race/ancestor-consciousness – these are themes that have been worked out throughout the entire 20th century, and the archaic revival is an expression of that."[29][30]

Video examples

Bibliography

  • McKenna, Dennis; — (1975). The Invisible Landscape: Mind, Hallucinogens, and the I Ching. New York: Seabury. ISBN 9780816492497.
  • McKenna, Dennis; —; under the pseudonyms OT Oss and ON Oeric (1976). Psilocybin: Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide. Berkeley, CA: And/Or Press. ISBN 9780915904136.
  • The Archaic Revival: Speculations on Psychedelic Mushrooms, the Amazon, Virtual Reality, UFOs, Evolution, Shamanism, the Rebirth of the Goddess, and the End of History. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco. 1992. ISBN 9780062506139.
  • Food of the Gods: The Search for the Original Tree of Knowledge – A Radical History of Plants, Drugs, and Human Evolution. New York: Bantam. 1992. ISBN 9780553078688.
  • Synesthesia. Illustrated by Ely, Timothy C. New York: Granary Books. 1992. ISBN 9781887123044. OCLC 30473682.
  • Abraham, Ralph H.; —; Sheldrake, Rupert (1992). Trialogues at the Edge of the West: Chaos, Creativity, and the Resacralization of the World. Forward by Houston, Jean. Bear & Company. ISBN 9780939680979.
  • True Hallucinations: Being an Account of the Author’s Extraordinary Adventures in the Devil's Paradise. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco. 1993. ISBN 9780062505453.
  • Abraham, Ralph H.; —; Sheldrake, Rupert (1998). The Evolutionary Mind: Conversations on Science, Imagination & Spirit. Monkfish Book Publishing. ISBN 0974935972.

Spoken word

  • History Ends in Green: Gaia, Psychedelics and the Archaic Revival, 6 audiocassette set, Mystic Fire audio, 1993, ISBN 1-56176-907-X (recorded at the Esalen Institute, 1989)
  • TechnoPagans at the End of History (transcription of rap with Mark Pesce from 1998)
  • Psychedelics in the Age of Intelligent Machines (1999) (DVD) HPX/SurrealStudio
  • Conversations on the Edge of Magic (1994) (CD & Cassette) ACE
  • Rap-Dancing into the Third Millennium (1994) (Cassette) (Re-issued on CD as The Quintessential Hallucinogen) ACE
  • Packing For the Long Strange Trip (1994) (Audio Cassette) ACE
  • Global Perspectives and Psychedelic Poetics (1994) (Cassette) Sound Horizons Audio-Video, Inc.
  • The Search for the Original Tree of Knowledge (1992) (Cassette) Sounds True
  • The Psychedelic Society (DVD & Video Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • True Hallucinations Workshop (Audio/Video Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • The Vertigo at History's Edge: Who Are We? Where Have We Come From? Where Are We Going? (DVD & Video/Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Ethnobotany and Shamanism (DVD & Video/Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Shamanism, Symbiosis and Psychedelics Workshop (Audio/Video Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Shamanology (Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Shamanology of the Amazon (w/ Nicole Maxwell) (Audio/Video Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Beyond Psychology (1983) (Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Understanding & the Imagination in the Light of Nature Parts 1 & 2 (DVD & Video/Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Ethnobotany (a complete course given at The California Institute of Integral Studies) (Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Non-ordinary States of Reality Through Vision Plants (Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Mind & Time, Spirit & Matter: The Complete Weekend in Santa Fe (Audio/Video Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Forms and Mysteries: Morphogenetic Fields and Psychedelic Experiences (w/ Rupert Sheldrake) (DVD & Video/Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • UFO: The Inside Outsider (DVD & Video/Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • A Calendar for The Goddess (DVD & Video/Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • A Magical Journey: Including Hallucinogens and Culture, Time and The I Ching, and The Human Future (Video Cassette) TAP/Sound Photosynthesis
  • Aliens and Archetypes (Video Cassette) TAP/Sound Photosynthesis
  • Angels, Aliens and Archetypes 1987 Symposium: Shamanic Approaches to the UFO, and Fairmont Banquet Talk (DVD & Video/Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Botanical Dimensions (Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Conference on Botanical Intelligence (w/ Joan Halifax, Andy Weil, & Dennis McKenna) (Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Coping With Gaia's Midwife Crisis (Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Dreaming Awake at the End of Time (DVD & Video/Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Evolving Times (DVD, CD & Video/Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Food of the Gods (Audio/Video Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Food of the Gods 2: Drugs, Plants and Destiny (Video Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Hallucinogens in Shamanism & Anthropology at Bridge Psychedelic Conf.1991 (w/ Ralph Metzner, Marlene Dobkin De Rios, Allison Kennedy & Thomas Pinkson) (Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Finale – Bridge Psychedelic Conf.1991 (Audio/Video Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Man and Woman at the End of History (w/ Riane Eisler) (Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Plants, Consciousness, and Transformation (1995) (Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Metamorphosis (w/ Rupert Sheldrake & Ralph Abraham) (1995) (Video Cassette) Mystic Fire/Sound Photosynthesis
  • Nature is the Center of the Mandala (Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Opening the Doors of Creativity (1990) (DVD & Video/Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Places I Have Been (CD & Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Plants, Visions and History Lecture (Audio/Video Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Psychedelics Before and After History (DVD & Video/Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Sacred Plants As Guides: New Dimensions of the Soul (at the Jung Society Clairemont, California) (DVD & Video/Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Seeking the Stone (Video Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Shamanism: Before and Beyond History – A Weekend at Ojai (w/ Ralph Metzner) (Audio/Video Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Shedding the Monkey (Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • State of the Stone '95 (Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • The Ethnobotany of Shamanism Introductory Lecture: The Philosophical Implications of Psychobotony: Past, Present and Future (at CIIS) (Audio/Video Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • The Ethnobotany of Shamanism Workshop: Psychedelics Before and After History (at CIIS) (Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • The Grammar of Ecstasy – the World Within the Word (Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • The Light at the End of History (Audio/Video Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • The State of the Stone Address: Having Archaic and Eating it Too (Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • The Taxonomy of Illusion (at UC Santa Cruz) (DVD & Video/Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • This World ...and Its Double (DVD & Video/Audio Cassette) Sound Photosynthesis
  • Trialogues at the Edge of the Millennium (w/ Rupert Sheldrake & Ralph Abraham) (at UC Santa Cruz) (1998) (Video Cassette) Trialogue Press

Discography

Filmography

  • Experiment at Petaluma (1990)
  • Prague Gnosis: Terence McKenna Dialogues (1992)
  • The Hemp Revolution (1995)
  • Terence McKenna: The Last Word (1999)
  • Shamans of the Amazon (2001)
  • Alien Dreamtime (2003)
  • 2012: The Odyssey (2007)
  • The Alchemical Dream: Rebirth Of The Great Work (2008)
  • Manifesting the Mind (2009)
  • Cognition Factor (2009)
  • DMT: The Spirit Molecule (2010)
  • 2012: Time for Change (2010)
  • The Terence McKenna OmniBus 2012 (2012)

See also

References

</references>
  1. Znamenski, Andrei A. (2007). The Beauty of the Primitive: Shamanism and Western Imagination. Oxford University Press. p. 138. ISBN 9780198038498. | http://books.google.com/books?id=JFgelrgGSIMC&pg=PA138
  2. Horgan, John (2004). Rational Mysticism: Spirituality Meets Science in the Search for Enlightenment. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 177. ISBN 9780547347806. | http://books.google.com/books?id=7dYV9UJszlUC&pg=PT188
  3. Brown, David Jay; Novick, Rebecca McClen, eds. (1993). "Mushrooms, Elves And Magic". Mavericks of the Mind: Conversations for the New Millennium. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press. pp. 9–24. ISBN 9780895946010.
  4. Partridge, Christopher (2006). "Ch. 3: Cleansing the Doors of Perception: The Contemporary Sacralization of Psychedelics". Reenchantment of West. Alternative Spiritualities, Sacralization, Popular Culture, and Occulture 2. Continuum. p. 113. ISBN 9780567552716.
  5. Jenkins, John Major (2009). "Early 2012 Books McKenna and Waters". The 2012 Story: The Myths, Fallacies, and Truth Behind the Most Intriguing Date in History. Penguin. ISBN 9781101148822. | http://books.google.com/books?id=M4Z5xOx1INcC&pg=PT76
  6. Hancock, Graham (2006) [2005]. Supernatural: Meetings with the Ancient Teachers of Mankind. London: Arrow. pp. 556–7. ISBN 9780099474159. | http://books.google.com/books?id=FpMhxNgf97YC&lpg=PA1&pg=PT217#v=onepage&q&f=false
  7. Gyrus (2009). "Appendix II: The Stoned Ape Hypothesis". War and the Noble Savage: A Critical Inquiry Into Recent Accounts of Violence Amongst Uncivilized Peoples. London: Dreamflesh. pp. 63–6. ISBN 0955419611. | http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=a9uCXbV90vMC&pg=PA63
  8. Stamets, Paul (1996). "5. Good Tips For Great Trips". Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World: An Identification Guide. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press. p. 36. ISBN 9780898158397.
  9. Jacobson, Mark (June 1992). "Terence McKenna the brave prophet of The next psychedelic revolution, or is his cosmic egg just a little bit cracked?". Esquire. pp. 107–38. ESQ199206.
  10. Brown, David Jay; Novick, Rebecca McClen, eds. (1993). "Mushrooms, Elves And Magic". Mavericks of the Mind: Conversations for the New Millennium. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press. pp. 9–24. ISBN 9780895946010.
  11. Brown, David Jay; Novick, Rebecca McClen, eds. (1993). "Mushrooms, Elves And Magic". Mavericks of the Mind: Conversations for the New Millennium. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press. pp. 9–24. ISBN 9780895946010.
  12. The Archaic Revival: Speculations on Psychedelic Mushrooms, the Amazon, Virtual Reality, UFOs, Evolution, Shamanism, the Rebirth of the Goddess, and the End of History. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco. 1992. ISBN 9780062506139.
  13. Hancock, Graham (2006) [2005]. Supernatural: Meetings with the Ancient Teachers of Mankind. London: Arrow. pp. 556–7. ISBN 9780099474159. | http://books.google.com/books?id=FpMhxNgf97YC&lpg=PA1&pg=PT217#v=onepage&q&f=false
  14. Jacobson, Mark (June 1992). "Terence McKenna the brave prophet of The next psychedelic revolution, or is his cosmic egg just a little bit cracked?". Esquire. pp. 107–38. ESQ199206. | https://archive.org/details/1992TerenceMcKennaEaquire
  15. Letcher, Andy (2007). "14.The Elf-Clowns of Hyperspace". Shroom: A Cultural History of the Magic Mushroom. Harper Perennial. pp. 253–74. ISBN 0060828293.
  16. Davis, Erik (May 2000). "Terence McKenna's last trip". Wired (8.05). Retrieved 2013-09-10. | http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/8.05/mckenna.html
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named shroom
  18. Stamets, Paul (1996). "5. Good Tips For Great Trips". Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World: An Identification Guide. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press. p. 36. ISBN 9780898158397.
  19. Horgan, John. "Was psychedelic guru Terence McKenna goofing about 2012 prophecy?" (blog). Scientific American. Retrieved 2014-02-05. | http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/cross-check/was-psychedelic-guru-terence-mckenna-goofing-about-2012-prophecy/
  20. Pinchbeck, Daniel (2003). Breaking Open the Head: A Psychedelic Journey into the Heart of Contemporary Shamanism. Broadway Books. pp. 231–8. ISBN 0767907434.
  21. McKenna, Terence. "The Invisible Landscape". futurehi.net (lecture). Future Hi. Archived from the original on October 16, 2005. | http://www.futurehi.net/media/McKenna_The_Invisible_Landscape_1-A.mp3
  22. Pinchbeck, Daniel (2003). Breaking Open the Head: A Psychedelic Journey into the Heart of Contemporary Shamanism. Broadway Books. pp. 231–8. ISBN 0767907434.
  23. Gyrus (2009). "Appendix II: The Stoned Ape Hypothesis". War and the Noble Savage: A Critical Inquiry Into Recent Accounts of Violence Amongst Uncivilized Peoples. London: Dreamflesh. pp. 63–6. ISBN 0955419611. | http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=a9uCXbV90vMC&pg=PA63
  24. Trip, Gabriel (May 2, 1993). "Tripping, but not falling". New York Times. p. A6.
  25. Shamen (1992). "Track 10: RE: Evolution". Boss Drum (CD and MP3). Epic. Event occurs at 4:50. OCLC 27056837. | https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/27056837
  26. McKenna, Terence. "The Gaian mind". deoxy.org (cut-up from the works of Terence McKenna). | http://deoxy.org/gaia/g_mind.htm
  27. Brown, David Jay; Novick, Rebecca McClen, eds. (1993). "Mushrooms, Elves And Magic". Mavericks of the Mind: Conversations for the New Millennium. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press. pp. 9–24. ISBN 9780895946010.
  28. Horgan, John. "Was psychedelic guru Terence McKenna goofing about 2012 prophecy?" (blog). Scientific American. Retrieved 2014-02-05. | http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/cross-check/was-psychedelic-guru-terence-mckenna-goofing-about-2012-prophecy/
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  30. 30.0 30.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named HT1992
  31. McKenna 1992a, pp. 204–17.
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 32.5 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Dery21C
  33. 33.0 33.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ScientificAHorgan
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  37. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Telegraph8thingsMush
  38. 38.0 38.1 McKenna 1992b, pp. 56–60.
  39. "Terence McKenna; Promoter of psychedelic drug use". Los Angeles Times. April 7, 2000. p. B6. 
  40. McKenna 1992b, p. 54.
  41. Fischer, Roland; Hill, Richard; Thatcher, Karen; Scheib, James (1970). "Psilocybin-Induced contraction of nearby visual space". Agents and Actions. 1 (4): 190–7. doi:10.1007/BF01965761. PMID 5520365. 
  42. McKenna 1992b, p. 57.
  43. 43.0 43.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named EsquireJacobson
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 44.4 44.5 44.6 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named NobleSavage
  45. 45.0 45.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Pinchbeck2003pp232-5
  46. 46.0 46.1 McKenna 1992b, p. 59.
  47. Znamenski 2007, pp. 138-9.
  48. Pinchbeck 2003, p. 194.
  49. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named AkersApes
  50. Hayes, Charles (2000). "Introduction: The Psychedelic [in] Society: A Brief Cultural History of Tripping". Tripping: An Anthology of True-Life Psychedelic Adventures. Penguin. p. 14. ISBN 9781101157190. 
  51. Template:Cite AV media
  52. McKenna, Terence. "The Importance of Human Beings (a.k.a Eros and the Eschaton)". matrixmasters.net. 
  53. Template:Cite AV media