UserWiki:David Hedlund/Ecstacy

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From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MDMA#Forms

MDMA has become widely known as ecstasy (shortened "E", "X", or "XTC"), usually referring to its tablet form, although this term may also include the presence of possible adulterants or dilutants. The UK term "mandy" and the US term "molly" colloquially refer to MDMA in a crystalline powder form that is thought to be free of adulterants.[1][2][3] MDMA is also sold in the form of the hydrochloride salt, either as loose crystals or in gelcaps.[4][5]

In part due to the global supply shortage of sassafras oil, substances that are sold as molly frequently contain no MDMA and instead contain methylone, ethylone, MDPV, mephedrone, or any other of the group of compounds commonly known as bath salts.[2][3][4][5] Powdered MDMA ranges from pure MDMA to crushed tablets with 30–40% purity.[6] MDMA tablets typically have low purity due to bulking agents that are added to dilute the drug and increase profits (e.g., lactose) and binding agents.[6] Tablets sold as ecstasy sometimes contain 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), other amphetamine derivatives, caffeine, opiates, or painkillers.[7] Some tablets contain little or no MDMA.[7][6][8] The proportion of seized ecstasy tablets with MDMA-like impurities has varied annually and by country.[6] The average content of MDMA in a preparation is 70 to 120 mg with the purity having increased since the 1990s.[7]

MDMA is usually consumed by mouth. It is also sometimes snorted.[9]

Adulterants

PMA

"According to David Nutt, when safrole was restricted by the United Nations in order to reduce the supply of MDMA, producers in China began using anethole instead, but this gives para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA, also known as "Dr Death"), which is much more toxic than MDMA and can cause overheating, muscle spasms, seizures, unconsciousness, and death. People wanting MDMA are sometimes sold PMA instead." - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MDMA

The previously good reputation of 'Mistubishi's' amongst ecstasy-users has been dealt a blow with the discovery of deadly batches PMA (aka White Mitsubishi in Shulgin Index, pp811), and PMMA (aka Red Mitsubishi).[10]

Fentanyl

Victoria pharmacy finds fentanyl in more than half of MDMA, cocaine samples - https://www.cheknews.ca/victoria-pharmacy-finds-fentanyl-half-mdma-cocaine-samples-325871/

External links

References

Template:External links

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named nature.com
  2. 2.0 2.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named DrugFacts
  3. 3.0 3.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named DEA 2015 assessment
  4. 4.0 4.1 Template:Cite AV media
  5. 5.0 5.1 Template:Cite AV media
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named EU2015
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Betzler2017
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Toxnet MDMA
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Drugs2014
  10. http://www.ecstasy.org/testing/pma.html