Talk:Simultaneous emotions

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I would prefer this to be named mixed emotions because simultaneous emotions is only referred to as a subtype towards this overall effect.[1] Generally papers are entitled 'mixed emotions' when discussing this subject. Graham (talk) 19:10, 24 December 2018 (CET)


  • Positive and negative emotions have been subject to controversy in research whether they can act independently of each other.[2][3], although this meta analysis showed significance for their existence with a medium to large average effect size, dIG+ = 0.77, z = 15.82, p < 0.01, with a 95% confidence interval lying between 0.68 and 0.87, based on 63 studies and a total sample size of 7157 participants. The classification of this overall effect size is also medium to large considering a recent very large (k = 687) meta-analysis on the elicitation of emotional experiences (g = 0.51; Lench et al., 2011). This indicates that mixed emotions were of sufficient magnitude to be reliably detected under a variety of conditions.[3]
  • Recreate the graphs from [1] as they seem to be a good representation of how emotions may mix in an experience.
  • [1] is an expansion of this paper [4]
  • There appears to be a tension associated with mixing opposing emotions[1][5] that secondary emotions such as nostalgia, empathy, poignancy, awe, and tenderness alleviates.[5]
  • It may be important to distinguish the difference between mood and emotion.[3]
  • Izard (1992) argued that basic emotions can be blended to form new emotions (...) Like mixing paint colors on a palette[3]
  • The co-occurrence of contradictory emotions may be referred to as emotional dialecticism and your cultural background influences the prevalence of them.[6][7]
  • "Failing to grapple with grapple with negative events in everyday life ultimately leads to poor health (Pennebaker, Kiecolt-Glaser, & Glaser, 1988). A recent metaanalysis, in fact, has shown that people who engage in repression as a coping strategy have a higher risk of suffering from cancer and cardiovascular diseases (Mund & Mitte, in press). Larsen et al. (2003) posit a third strategy for dealing with life’s difficulties, “taking the good with the bad,” in which people find a way to feel good when feeling bad. Under these circumstances, experiencing negative affect alongside positive affect can be beneficial to long-term health because individuals are able to confront and find something positive in life’s stressors. In their framework, allowing for positive affect to be experienced concurrently with negative affect prompts individuals to face negative events in life and gain insight into them." There's a lot into mixed emotions being beneficial for physical health in this paper[8]
  • "The operationalization of mixed emotional experiences varies across studies, but most use one of three definitions: a) the covariation of positive and negative emotions; b) the co-occurrence of multiple emotions of the same valence; and c) the number of emotion groups, or factors, needed to capture a person’s daily affective experience. Each of these definitions, in turn, is associated with theories about the function of these complex experiences." They proceed to detail the three after[9]
  • "Using this approach, we find a brain that does not trigger or retrieve multiple elemental emotions in parallel, but rather generates singular, high-dimensional representations comprised of mental features from past, heterogeneous experiences of emotion. These representations are constructed in anticipation of their use, and then dynamically updated by sensory input from the body and the world, unfolding over time as a series of emotional events that can be viewed across multiple times scales and perspectives. In other words: emotions are not your reactions to the world; they are your actively constructed experiences of it." "The experience of multiple emotions “at the same time” is also due to the various timescales at which predictions, actions, and experiences occur"[10]
  • "In five studies, the authors show that some individuals demonstrate affective synchrony (overlapping experience of positive and negative moods), others a-synchrony (positive and negative mood that fluctuate independently), and still others de-synchrony (positive and negative moods that function as bipolar opposites). These tendencies are stable over time within persons, vary broadly across individuals, and are associated with individual differences in cognitive representation of self and of emotions."[11]

Thinking about it, this may be a subcategory of emotion enhancement rather than one deserving all to itself due to its ability to be experienced without psychotropic influence. Graham (talk) 00:57, 2 January 2019 (CET)


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Oceja, L., & Carrera, P. (2009). Beyond a single pattern of mixed emotional experience: Sequential, prevalence, inverse, and simultaneous. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 25(1), 58-67.
  2. Larsen, J. T., & McGraw, A. P. (2011). Further evidence for mixed emotions. Journal of personality and social psychology, 100(6), 1095.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Berrios, R., Totterdell, P., & Kellett, S. (2015). Eliciting mixed emotions: a meta-analysis comparing models, types, and measures. Frontiers in psychology, 6, 428.
  4. Carrera, P., & Oceja, L. (2007). Drawing mixed emotions: Sequential or simultaneous experiences?. Cognition and Emotion, 21(2), 422-441.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Braniecka, A., Trzebińska, E., Dowgiert, A., & Wytykowska, A. (2014). Mixed emotions and coping: The benefits of secondary emotions. PloS one, 9(8), e103940.
  6. Miyamoto, Y., Uchida, Y., & Ellsworth, P. C. (2010). Culture and mixed emotions: Co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions in Japan and the United States. Emotion, 10(3), 404.,%20Uchida%20&%20Ellsworth.pdf
  7. Williams, P., & Aaker, J. L. (2002). Can mixed emotions peacefully coexist?. Journal of Consumer Research, 28(4), 636-649.
  8. Hershfield, H. E., Scheibe, S., Sims, T. L., & Carstensen, L. L. (2013). When feeling bad can be good: Mixed emotions benefit physical health across adulthood. Social psychological and personality science, 4(1), 54-61.
  9. Charles, S. T., Piazza, J. R., & Urban, E. J. (2017). Mixed emotions across adulthood: when, where, and why?. Current opinion in behavioral sciences, 15, 58-61.
  10. Hoemann, K., Gendron, M., & Barrett, L. F. (2017). Mixed emotions in the predictive brain. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 15, 51-57.
  11. Rafaeli, E., Rogers, G. M., & Revelle, W. (2007). Affective synchrony: Individual differences in mixed emotions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(7), 915-932.