Morning glory

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Morning glory seeds, mixed colors.

Morning glory (also written as morning-glory) is the common name for over 1,000 species of flowering plants in the family Convolvulaceae that belong to many genera, whose current taxonomy and systematics are in flux.

Species

Argyreia nervosa

Argyreia nervosa is known as Hawaiian Baby Woodrose, or woolly morning glory when used to denote that its a morning glory.

Ipomoea spp.

The traditional uses, chemistry and biological activities of the approximately 600-700 species of Ipomoea spp. that are found throughout regions of the world have been reviewed.[1]

Ipomoea tricolor

Ipomoea tricolor is known as Mexican morning glory.

R. Gordon Wasson has argued that the hallucinogenic seeds used by the Aztecs under the Nahuatl name tlitliltzin, were the seeds of I. tricolor. Wasson also noted that the modern-day Zapotecs of Oaxaca know the seeds as badoh negro.[2]

In cultivation, the species is very commonly grown misnamed as Ipomoea violacea, actually a different though related species. Numerous cultivars of I. tricolor with different flower colours have been selected for use as ornamental plants; widely grown examples include Blue Star, Flying Saucers, Heavenly Blue, Heavenly Blue Improved, Pearly Gates, Rainbow Flash, Skylark, Summer Skies and Wedding Bells.

Ipomoea violacea

Ipomoea violacea is known as Beach moonflower.

Turbina corymbosa

Turbina corymbosa (syn Rivea corymbosa, Ipomoea corymbosa) is known as Christmas vine.

Known to natives of north and central Mexico by its Nahuatl name Ololiúqui (also spelled ololiuhqui or ololiuqui)[3] and by the south eastern natives as xtabentún (in Yucatec Maya language).

Chemistry

The Hawaiian Baby Woodrose seeds have higher concentration of LSA and on average 10 times more alkaloids by weight than seeds from Turbina corymbosa (Ololiúqui), or Ipomoea tricolor cultivars Heavenly Blue, Pearly Gates, Wedding Bells.[4]

Synthesizing LSD from LSA extracted from morning glory seeds or Hawaiian Baby Woodrose seeds is theoretically possible, but impractical and uncommon due to the fact that these seeds have a considerable amount of clavinet alkaloids. Ergot, or more recently introduced, sleepy grass (Stipa robusta), is needed to produce really high quality LSD.[5]

Psychoactive use

Hawaiian Baby Woodrose seeds is a popular legal high.[6] However, despite the higher concentration of alkaloids in the Woodrose seeds, the trip is generally experienced as both somatically unpleasant and not particularly psychedelic like LSD.[7]

Anti-nauseant drugs such as diphenhydramine, cyclizine, meclizine or trimethobenzamide, may be taken beforehand to prevent nausea from morning glory seeds.[8]

Pharmacology

Controversy

It is often stated that ergine and/or isoergine (its epimer) is responsible for the psychedelic activity. However, this theory is debatable, as anecdotal reports suggest that the effects of synthetic LSA and iso-LSA are only slightly psychedelic, see Mixing the Kykeon below for a summary of human trials, and Chapter 17 and entry #26 of TiHKAL for further discussion.

History

Argyreia nervosa is a rare example of a plant whose healing properties were not recognized until recent times. While several of its cousins in the Convolvulaceae family, such as Rivea corymbosa (ololiuhqui) and Ipomoea tricolor (tlitliltzin), were used in shamanic rituals of Latin America for centuries, A. nervosa was not traditionally used for this purpose. Huna shamans used A. nervosa according to various oral histories.[9]

Literature

Meira, Marilena; Silva, Eliezer Pereira da; David, Jorge M.; David, Juceni P. (NaN). Review of the genus Ipomoea: traditional uses, chemistry and biological activities. pp. 682–713.  Check date values in: |date= (help)

External links

References

  1. Meira, Marilena; Silva, Eliezer Pereira da; David, Jorge M.; David, Juceni P. (NaN). "Review of the genus Ipomoea: traditional uses, chemistry and biological activities". Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 22 (3): 682–713. doi:10.1590/S0102-695X2012005000025. ISSN 0102-695X.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  2. Carod-Artal, FJ (2015). "Hallucinogenic drugs in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures". Neurologia. 30 (1): 42–9. doi:10.1016/j.nrl.2011.07.003. PMID 21893367. 
  3. Carod-Artal, FJ (2015). "Hallucinogenic drugs in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures". Neurologia. 30 (1): 42–9. doi:10.1016/j.nrl.2011.07.003. PMID 21893367. 
  4. "Erowid Psychoactive Vaults". erowid.org. 
  5. Fester, Uncle (1997). Practical LSD manufacture (Rev. and expanded 2nd ed. ed.). Port Townsend, WA: Loompanics Unlimited. ISBN 978-1559501613. 
  6. Schmidt, MM; Sharma, A; Schifano, F; Feinmann, C (20 March 2011). ""Legal highs" on the net-Evaluation of UK-based Websites, products and product information". Forensic science international. 206 (1-3): 92–7. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2010.06.030. PMID 20650576. 
  7. DeKorne, Jim (2011). Psychedelic shamanism : the cultivation, preparation, and shamanic use of psychotropic plants (Rev. ed. ed.). Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1556439995. 
  8. Alpert, Timothy Leary, Ralph Metzner, Richard (1992). The psychedelic experience : a manual based on the Tibetan book of the dead (1st Citadel underground ed. ed.). New York: Citadel Press. ISBN 978-0806516523. 
  9. "Entheology.org - Preserving Ancient Knowledge". www.entheology.org.