see http://www.dreamviews.com/research/133582-menthol-dream-enhancer.html#D2 in regards to melanopsin, dynorphins, d2 receptor
see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melatonin in regards to interaction between melanopsin and melatonin
"Blue light, principally around 460 to 480 nm, suppresses melatonin, proportional to the light intensity and length of exposure. Until recent history, humans in temperate climates were exposed to few hours of (blue) daylight in the winter; their fires gave predominantly yellow light. The incandescent light bulb widely used in the 20th century produced relatively little blue light. Light containing only wavelengths greater than 530 nm does not suppress melatonin in bright-light conditions. Wearing glasses that block blue light in the hours before bedtime may decrease melatonin loss. Use of blue-blocking goggles the last hours before bedtime has also been advised for people who need to adjust to an earlier bedtime, as melatonin promotes sleepiness."
We require a proper classification system for oneirogens by pharmacological action
there seems to be four classes
- Anticholinergic withdrawal (Acetylcholine rebound)
- REM enhancement/D2 agonism
- REM rebound/D2 antagonist withdrawal
I am suspect that REM enhancement and D2 agonism are the same thing -providing a pharmacological as opposed to physiological source. See: - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166432807006481 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15301928
I suggest that most if not all REM enhancers may turn out to be D2 agonists
withdrawal from addiction seems to release dynorphin which is an endogenous D2 agonist, see: -http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3608442/
"A role for the endogenous dynorphins in mediating the dysphoric effects of drug withdrawal has been demonstrated after cessation of morphine (Carroll et al., 2005), tetrahydrocannabinol (Zimmer et al., 2001), nicotine (McCarthy et al., 2010), cocaine (Chartoff et al., 2012), and ethanol (Walker and Koob, 2008; Schank et al., 2012; Valdez and Harshberger, 2012)."
D2 antagonists like antipsychotics and other sedatives seem to potentiate SWS thereby stopping REM, Intrusion of REM into the waking state is believed to be a major factor in psychosis, explaining why D2 agonists such as psychedelics, kappa opioids, or conversely withdrawal from sedatives such at classical dissociatives or opiates have been known to induce psychosis. There has been shown to be a close relationship between mental illnesses prone to psychosis like schizophrenia and the presence of mutations in the D2 receptor.
"Hypnapompia" changed to "Hypnopompia"
The Greek root is hipnos, therefore "Hypnopompia". As I've never seen "Hypnogogia" and it is written nowhere, the term has to be "Hypnagogia".