|Summary sheet: Methoxpropamine|
Methoxpropamine (also known as MXPr) is a recently discovered novel hallucinogen substance of the arylcyclohexylamine class.Methoxpropamine (MXPr) is classified as a novel hallucinogen, with subclassification as an arylcyclohexylamine. Novel hallucinogens have been reported to cause effects similar to ketamine and phencyclidine (PCP). Novel hallucinogens have caused adverse events, including deaths, as described in the literature. Structurally similar arylcyclohexylamines include methoxetamine (MXE) and methoxmetamine (MXM). Analogues in this series are not scheduled in the United States. 
The original synthesis date of Methoxpropamine is believed to be in Denmark, sometime during 2019. It appears to have emerged on the online research chemical market in late 2019, and is now sold on multiple websites an “almost legal” substance worldwide. It is an example of a novel psychoactive substance specifically chosen to mimic the features of prohibited substances and bypass drug laws. It seems to have similar effects to methoxetamine but evading illegality by altering the synthesis enough.
Very little is known about the pharmacology, metabolism, and toxicity of Methoxpropamine. Due to this, it is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.
History and culture
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Phencyclidine (PCP) is believed to be the first arylcyclohexylamine with recognized anesthetic properties, but several arylcyclohexylamines were described before PCP in the scientific literature, beginning with PCA (1-phenylcyclohexan-1-amine) the synthesis of which was first published in 1907. PCE was reported in 1953 and PCMo in 1954, with the latter compound described as a potent sedative. Arylcyclohexylamine anesthetics were intensively investigated at Parke-Davis, beginning with the 1956 synthesis of phencyclidine and later the related compound ketamine. The 1970s saw the debut of these compounds, especially PCP and its analogues, as illicitly used recreational drugs due to their dissociative hallucinogenic and euphoriant effects. Since, the class has been expanded by scientific research into stimulant, analgesic, and neuroprotective agents, and also by clandestine chemists in search of novel recreational drugs.
An arylcyclohexylamine is composed of a cyclohexylamine unit with an aryl moiety attachment. The aryl group is positioned geminal to the amine. In the simplest cases, the aryl moiety is typically a phenyl ring, sometimes with additional substitution. The amine is usually not primary; secondary amines such as methylamino or ethylamino, or tertiary cycloalkylamines such as piperidino and pyrrolidino, are the most commonly encountered N-substituents.
Arylcyclohexylamines varyingly possess NMDA receptor antagonistic, dopamine reuptake inhibitory, and μ-opioid receptor agonistic properties. Additionally, σ receptor agonistic, nACh receptor antagonistic, and D2 receptor agonistic actions have been reported for some of these agents. Antagonism of the NMDA receptor confers anesthetic, anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, and dissociative effects; blockade of the dopamine transporter mediates stimulant and euphoriant effects as well as psychosis in high amounts; and activation of the μ-opioid receptor causes analgesic and euphoriant effects. Stimulation of the σ and D2 receptors may also contribute to hallucinogenic and psychotomimetic effects.