Peganum harmala

From PsychonautWiki
(Redirected from Peganum harmala (botany))
Jump to: navigation, search
Peganum harmala
Peganum harmala.jpg
P. harmala in the nature.
Taxonomical nomenclature
Kingdom Plantae
Unranked Angiosperms
Unranked Eudicots
Unranked Rosids
Order Sapindales
Family Nitrariaceae
Genus Peganum
Species P. harmala
Common nomenclature
Common names Espand, Esfand, Syrian rue
Constituents
Active constituents Harmala alkaloid

Peganum harmala, commonly called Syrian rue, harmel, espand, esfand, wild rue, African rue, or aspand, is a plant native to the eastern Iranian region west to India. It has also spread invasively throughout Arizona, California, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Texas and Washington.[1] The plant itself produces seeds which contain harmala alkaloids and is easily accessible and legal to purchase online.

Chemistry

Syrian rue seeds

Powdered syrian rue seeds act as a MAOI at doses of 2-5g. Syrian rue seeds contain several different harmala alkaloids at slightly varying percentages. Only some are monoamine oxidase A inhibitors. In one study, total harmala alkaloids were at least 5.9% of dried weight.[2][3][4] Seed extracts were potent reversible and competitive inhibitors of MAO-A but poor inhibitors of MAO-B.[5]

Toxicity and harm potential

Dangerous interactions

Cholinergics

Cholinergic substances combined with Peganum harmala can cause a cholinergic crisis because the plant contains several acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs):

Drug use in pregnancy

Peganum harmala can induce miscarriage. It has traditionally been used as an abortifacient agent in Morocco, North Africa, and the Middle East.[18] It is believed that quinazoline alkaloids such as vasicine and vasicinone are responsible for the abortifacient activity of the plant.[19]

See also

External links

References

  1. https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=PEHA
  2. http://www.phcogrev.com/article.asp?issn=0973-7847;year=2013;volume=7;issue=14;spage=199;epage=212;aulast=Moloudizargari
  3. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15563650701323205
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Hemmateenejad B, Abbaspour A, Maghami H, Miri R, Panjehshahin MR (August 2006). "Partial least squares-based multivariate spectral calibration method for simultaneous determination of beta-carboline derivatives in Peganum harmala seed extracts". Anal. Chim. Acta. 575 (2): 290–9. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2006.05.093. PMID 17723604. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Herraiz T, González D, Ancín-Azpilicueta C, Arán VJ, Guillén H (March 2010). "beta-Carboline alkaloids in Peganum harmala and inhibition of human monoamine oxidase (MAO)". Food Chem. Toxicol. 48 (3): 839–45. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2009.12.019. PMID 20036304. 
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3841998/
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18560630
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16139309
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8149995
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Pulpati H, Biradar YS, Rajani M (2008). "High-performance thin-layer chromatography densitometric method for the quantification of harmine, harmaline, vasicine, and vasicinone in Peganum harmala". J AOAC Int. 91 (5): 1179–85. PMID 18980138. 
  11. "African rue or Harmel". www.cdfa.ca.gov. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  12. Massaro, E. J. (2002). Handbook of Neurotoxicology. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. p. 237. ISBN 0-89603-796-7. 
  13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12609665
  14. 14.0 14.1 http://www.thenook.org/archives/tek/06332ott.htmlTemplate:Full citation needed
  15. Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, Volume 43, page 43
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19784581
  17. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0122366
  18. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/criem/2014/783236/
  19. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/zygophyllaceae