Peganum harmala

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Peganum harmala
Peganum harmala.jpg
P. harmala in the nature.
Taxonomical nomenclature
Kingdom Plantae
Unranked Angiosperms
Unranked Eudicots
Unranked Rosids
Order Sapindales
Family Nitrariaceae
Genus Peganum
Species P. harmala
Common nomenclature
Common names Espand, Esfand, Syrian rue
Active constituents Harmala alkaloid

Peganum harmala, commonly called Syrian rue, harmel, espand, esfand, wild rue, African rue, or aspand, is a plant native to the eastern Iranian region west to India. It has also spread invasively throughout Arizona, California, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Texas and Washington.[1] The plant itself produces seeds which contain harmala alkaloids and is easily accessible and legal to purchase online.


Syrian rue seeds

Powdered syrian rue seeds act as a reversible inhibitor of MAO-A (RIMA) at doses of 2-5g. Syrian rue seeds contain several different harmala alkaloids at slightly varying percentages. Only some are monoamine oxidase A inhibitors. In one study, total harmala alkaloids were at least 5.9% of dried weight.[2][3]

  • Harmane: 0.16%
  • Harmine: 0.44% (the coatings of the seeds are said to contain large amounts of harmine)
  • Harmaline: 0.25%
  • Harmalol: 0.6%
  • Tetrahydroharmine: 0.1%
  • Vasicine (peganine): 0.25%<
  • Vasicinone: 0.0007%

See also

External links