Lophophora williamsii (botany)

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Please avoid harvesting peyote in its natural habitat.

Peyote populations are rapidly declining in nature due to over-harvesting by non-indigenous peoples. As a result, it is currently a threatened species.[1][2] Those who wish to consume peyote are encouraged to grow their own or use alternative mescaline-containing cactus species such as San Pedro or Peruvian Torch.

Lophophora williamsii
Lophophora williamsii ies.jpg
Peyote in a pot.
Taxonomical nomenclature
Kingdom Plantae
Unranked Angiosperms
Unranked Eudicots
Unranked Core eudicots
Order Caryophyllales
Family Cactaceae
Genus Lophophora
Species L. williamsii
Common nomenclature
Common names Peyote, Peyotel (in Latin America)
Constituents
Active constituents Mescaline, Pellotine, Hordenine, ect.

Lophophora williamsii, also known as peyote or peyotel, is a slow growing spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids like mescaline and pellotine.[3] Native North Americans are likely to have used peyote, often for spiritual purposes, for at least 5,500 years.[4]

Distribution and habitat

Etymology

The word peyote is the Spanish form of the ancient Nahuatlan word peyotl. Some etymologist suggested that this word is derived from the aztec word "pepeyoni" (means to excite) or "pepeyon" (to activate).[5] de Molina claimed that it is derived from the Nahuatlan word "peyutl" which means "silk cocoon or caterpillar's cocoon".[6]

Alkaloids in different Lophophora species

According to the study by Dr. Štarha,[7] all varieties of peyote contain approximately 0.7 mg of mescaline per gram of living plant. Both Lophophora diffusa and Lophophora fricii are found to be low in mescaline and high in pellotine.

Alkaloid (mg/gram of alive plant) L. williamsii L. jourdaniana L. diffusa L. fricii L. koehresii
Tyramine 0.5 - 1 0.6 0.1 0.1 0.1
Hordenine 5 - 8 2 - 9 0.5 0.4 0.4
Mescaline 15 - 30 31 1.2 1.1 1.3
Pellotine 14 - 17 17.8 86.2 65.2 88.4
Anhalonidine 14 20.1 3.8 25.9 3.5

Study by Dr. Štarha in the Grym, Rudolf (1997) book.[8]

External links

References

  1. Lophophora williamsii | http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/151962/0
  2. Lophophora diffusa | http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/40967/0
  3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5065448
  4. El-Seedi HR, De Smet PA, Beck O, Possnert G, Bruhn JG (October 2005). "Prehistoric peyote use: alkaloid analysis and radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas". J Ethnopharmacol.
  5. PEYOTE (LOPHOPHORA WILLIAMSII) AND PLANTS CONFUSED WITH IT by Richard Evans , Harvard University (November 19, 1937) | http://www.jstor.org/stable/41762659
  6. Peyote: The Divine Cactus By Edward F. Anderson, Page 160
  7. Grym, Rudolf (1997). Rod/Die Gattung Lophophora. Bratislava: Vydavateľstvo Roman Staník. ISBN 80-900933-9-6. (The book features an appendix on Lophophora chemistry by Dr Roman Štarha.)
  8. Grym, Rudolf (1997). Rod/Die Gattung Lophophora. Bratislava: Vydavateľstvo Roman Staník. ISBN 80-900933-9-6. (The book features an appendix on Lophophora chemistry by Dr Roman Štarha.)